Expo: Economics (Essay & Objective) Waec 2017 Free Expo Answers See Here>>>>>>


Economics Essay x Theory x Objective x OBJ Waec 2017 Free Expo Answers
=========================
Monday, 24th April, 2017

Economics 2 (Essay) 09.30am – 11.30am
Economics 1 (Objective) 11.30am – 12.30pm
============================


*2017 COMPLETE AND VERIFIED WASSCE ECONOMICS ANSWERS*💯✔

*Economics OBJ:*

*1-10: BCDBBBCCBA
*11-20: CCCCCDCCBD
*21-30: BBCADCABAB
*31-40: CAABBCDBDD
*41-50: BDCABBBACA

“””””” *Section A* “””””””

*Questions 1*
Tabule form
Price:-450 ,500
Weekly sales:- 800, 600

Ai
% change in demand= (800-600)*100
———-
800
=200/800*100%
=25%

%change in price=500-450*100%
——————
450
=50/450*100%
=11.11%

% elasiticy of demand =%change in demand /% change in price

=25%/11.11%
=2.25%
============

2a)
Qd = 30 – P
Qs = 15 + 2 P
Demand and Supply schedule for the market :
Please tabulate
Price ( $ ) : 2 ,4 ,7
Qd : 28 ,26 ,23
Qs : 19 , 23 , 29
Qd = 30 – P when P = 2
Qd = 30 – 2 = 28
Qd = 30 – P when P = 4
Qd = 30 – 4 = 26
Qd = 30 – P when P = 7
Qd = 30 – 7 = 23
tabulate again
supply schedule
Please tabulate
Price ( $ ) : 2 ,4 ,7
Qd : 28 ,26 ,23
Qs : 19 , 23 , 29
Qs = 15 + 2 P when P = 2
Qs = 15 + 2 ( 2 )
= 15 + 4 = 19
Qs = 15 + 2 P when P = 4
Qs = 15 + 2 ( 4 )
= 15 + 8 = 23
Qs = 15 + 2 P when P = 7
Qs = 15 + 2 ( 7 )
= 15 + 14 = 29

2bi)
Equilibrium quantity
Qd = 30 – P
Qd = 30 – 5
Qd = 25

2bii)
At P =$ 3
Qd =30 – p
Qd =30 – 3
Qs =15 + 2 p
= 15 + 2 ( 3 )
= 15 + 6
= 21 apples
excess demand = 27 -21
= 6 apples

2ci)
Tabulate
Qd =40 – p
Price ( $ ) : 2 ,4 ,7
Qd : 38 ,36 ,33
2 cii )
i ) it represent an increase in demand
2 ciii)
i ) the two schedules show that there is a corresponding increase in demand for apples for ten ( 10 ) at each price

=====================

“”””” *SECTION B CHOOSE ANY 3 ANSWERS BELOW* “”””

3a) Land:
It refers to all natural resources which are free gifts of nature. Land, therefore, includes all gifts of nature available to mankind—both on the surface and under the surface

3 b )
i ) Land is a Primary Factor of Production
ii) Land is a Passive Factor of Production
iii)Land has some Original Indestructible
Powers

3c)-Fishery purposes: Land is used for fishery in rivers, seas and oceans. Fish ponds are also developed
– Wildlife purpose: Land is used for wildlife conservation, e.g game reserves and national parks.
-Livestock purpose: Land is also used for livestock production (I.e rearing of animals), e.g cattle, sheep, goat, poultry, e.t.c
-Farming purpose: Land is used for the cultivation of both food and cash crops, e.g maize, yam, cocoa, etc.
________________________________
4a) subsistence farming can be defined as the type of agriculture which is concerned with the production if food for the farmer and family only

4b) crop farming can be defined as an agriculture which deal with crop cash production e. G cocoa, cashew, cowoea.
WHILE livestock farming can be defined as the rearing of domestic animals e. G pig, fish etc

4c
-Credit facilities
-Extension of workers
-Construction of good road
-provision of social ameninites

_________________________________
6a)Inflation is the rate at which the general level of prices for goods and services is rising and, consequently, the purchasing power of currency is falling. Central banks attempt to limit inflation, and avoid deflation, in order to keep the economy running smoothly.

6bi)
-growing economy
-expectation of inflation
-discretionary fiscal
6bii)
-monopoly
-wage inflation
-exchange rates

______________________________
7a) Economic development can be defined as efforts that seek to improve the economic well-being and quality of life for a community

7b) -dependency on agricultural sector
-illiteracy
-production for self-consumption

7c)
-Currency Strength
The value of the U.S. dollar compared to other foreign currencies such as the yuan, yen and the pound is important even for companies that do not import or export goods. Consumers have a choice to purchase goods or services originating in the United States or in other countries. If the U.S. dollar strengthens, companies in the industry that purchase inputs from other countries are able to be more competitive in pricing. In industries that are heavily reliant on foreign raw materials and processing, such as the clothing industry, the entire sector can be lifted or depressed with a strengthening or weakening of the dollar.
-Government Intervention
Many industries are regulated by the government in one form or another. Government agencies such as the –Environmental Protection Agency, the Food & Drug Administration or the U.S. Department of Agriculture maintain standards that all operators in an industry must follow for the safety of consumers, employees, or natural resources. Some industries are more heavily regulated than others and new laws and rules can shake up an entire industry and depress growth. For example, new child toy safety laws implemented under the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act in 2009 threatened to wipe out many small toy producers as the requirements to test and certify the toys were cost-prohibitive to all but large toy manufacturers. Proposed changes to the Act may help alleviate the burden on small manufacturers and resellers.
-Environmental Impact
Economic growth in an industry can be impacted not only by the environmental effect the products or services have but also by consumers’ perceptions of that impact. For example, the market for fur apparel declined drastically over the course of a few years in the 1990s when consumers perceived that raising and killing small animals for their fur was both inhumane and a poor use of land. Although the industry is once again picking up with international demand, the number of fur farmers in the country has substantially declined. If the public views an industry’s products or services as being harmful or unsafe, most companies within the sector can experience a marked decline in sales quickly.
-Overall Economic Health
The economic state of the country
confidence can also spur growth and development or harm it. In recessionary times, consumers begin limiting their purchases to the essentials, foregoing luxury or big-ticket items. Companies also scale back production, hiring and the development of new products and services to ensure that their finances can weather the storm. In periods of overall economic growth, these companies once again expand.

8ai)- Increased exports.
-Make use of surplus raw materials.

8aii) -Restrictions on immigration
– cross-border investment are abolished.

8b) A common market, or single market, have advantages including consumers have more choice and lower prices.

Disadvantages of the common market include that monopolies may be formed.

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Expo: Mathematics (Essay & Objective) Waec 2017 Free Expo Answers See Here>>>>>


Maths (Essay & Objective) Waec 2017 Free Expo Answers
============================
Thursday, 20th April, 2017
General Mathematics 2 (Essay) 09.30am – 12.00pm
General Mathematics 1 (Objective) 2.00pm – 3.30pm
============================

MATHS OBJ:
1-10: CBBCCACBBC
11-20: CACBAAAADB
21-30: BBADBCCACB
31-40: BBCACBDADA
41-50: DDACCCDDCB

================================
*SECTION A ANS ALL QUESTIONS*
================================

1 a)
(y -1 ) log 4 ^ 10 = ylog 16 ^ 10
log 4 ^ 10 ( y -1 )= log 16 ^ y 10
4 ^ ( y -1 )= 16 y
4 ^ y -1 = 4 ^ 2 y
y- 1 = 2 y
-1 = 2 y= y
-1 = y
y= -y

1 b )
let the actual time for 5 km / hr be t
for 4 km /hr = 30 mint + t
4 km /hr =0 . 5 + t
distance = 4 (0 . 5 + t )
= 2 * 4 t
for 5 km /hr , time = t
distance =5 t
1 + 4 t = 5 t
t= 2 hrs
actual distance = 5 * 2 = 10 km

================================

2a)
2/3 (3x – 5) – 3/5 (2x – 3) = 3
(15) x 2/3 (3x – 5) – 3/5 (15) (2x – 3) = 3(15)
10(3x -5) – 9(2x – 3) = 45
30x – 50 – 18x + 27 = 45.
12x – 23 = 45
12x = 45+23
12x = 68
X = 68/12
X = 5.67

2b)
80 = n+r ( ext. < equal sum of opp int. < s )
80 = n+r ———— (i)
M = 80 + 92 – n
M = 172 – n ———– (ii)
80 + 92 – n + 180 – m = 180°‎
80 + 92 + 180 – n – m = 180°‎
352 – n – m = 180
-n – m = 180 – 352‎
– n – m = – 172°‎
m + n = 172°‎

===============================

3a) ‎
Tan 23.6° = h/50
Cross multiply
Tan 23.6° x h/50
h = 50 tan 23.6°
= 21.844m‎
‎aprox. 22m

3b)
Area of A = 1/2bh
45 = 1/2 x 10 x h
45 = 5h
h = 9cm
Area of < QTUS = 1/2 ( QT + US)h
= 1/2 ( 6 + 16)9
= 99cm^2

================================

4 a)
T 6 =37
T 6 =a + ( 6 – 1 )d
T 6 =a + 5 d
a + 5 d = 37 – — -( eq1 )
s 6 = 147
sn = n / 2 (2 a + (n -1 ) d )
147 = 3 (2 a + 5 d )
49 = 2 a + 5 d
2 a+ 5 d = 49 — — (eq 2 )
a + 5 d = 37 – –( eq1 )
2 a+ 5 d = 49 — -( eq2 )
a =12

4 b )
S 15 = 15 /2 ( 2 (12 )+ 14 d )
S 15 = 15 /2 ( 24 + 14 d )
from(1 )
a + 5 d = 37
12 + 5 d = 37
5 d =37 -12
5 d =25
d =5
S 15 = 15 /2 ( 24 + 14 (15 )
S 15 = 15 / 2 (24 + 70 )
S 15 = 15 /2 * 94
S 15 = 15 * 42
S 15 = 630

================================

5a)
Let bag=B
Shoe= S
U=120
n(BnS)=45, n(s)=x+11, n(b)=x
n(SnB’)=x+11-45
=x-34
n(BnS’) = 45

5b)
Y – 45 + 45 + Y – 34 = 120
2Y – 34 = 120
2Y = 120 – 34
2Y = 154
Y = 154/2
Y = 77
11+x=77+11
= 88
Therefor 88 bought shoes costumer

5c)
n(bag)= 77 customers
Pr. =77/120

================================
*SECTION B ANS 5 QUESTIONS ONLY*
================================

8)
In Table Form / Tabular form

X = 1,2,3,4,5
F = m+2, m-1, 2m-3, m+5, 3m-4 = 8m – 1‎
Fx = m+2, 2m-2, 6m-9, 4m+20, 15m-20 = 28m – 9‎

But x̄ ( this symbol (x̄) means X bar)
= 75/23‎
ΣFx / Σf = 75/23 = 28m – 9/8m-1
75/23 = 28m – 9/8m – 1
Cross multiply
75(8m-1) = 23(28m-9)
600m – 75 = 644m – 207
-75 + 207 = 644m – 600m
132 = 44m
M = 3

8b)
In tabular form
X = 1,2,3,4,5
F = 5,2,3,8,5
Cum Freq= 5,7,10,18,23

Q1 = (N+1/4) = (23+1/4)
= 6

Q3 = (3N + 1/4) = (3*23+1/4)
= 18

Inter quarter range = Q3 – Q1
=. 18-6
= 12

8bii)
Pr. (at least 4 mark)
= 8+3+2+5/23
= 18/23‎

10)
Sin x = 5/13
Using pythagoras rule
M^2 = 13^2 – 5^2 (^ means Raise to power)
M^2 = 169 – 25
M ^2 = 144
M = √144
M = 12
Hence:
Cos x – 2sin x / 2tan x
12/13 – 2(5/13) / 2(5/12)
‎= 12/13 – 10/23 / 5/6
FIND LCM
= 12 – 10/13 / 5/6
= 12/65

10b)
Draw a triangle LACB
in triangle LCB
Hyp^2 = Opp^2 + Adj^2
12^2 = 9.6^2 + |CB|^2
144 = 92.16 = |CB|^2
144 – 92.16 = |CB|^2
51.84 = |CB|^2
therefore, |CB| = √51.84
|CB| = 7.2m
|AC| + |CB| =|AB|
|AC| + 7.2m = 10m
|AC| = 10m – 7.2m

|AC| = 2.8m
In triangle LCA
Hyp^2 = Opp^2 + Adj^2
|LA|^2 = |AC|^2 + |LC|^2

|LA|^2 = 2.8^2 + 9.6^2

|LA|^2 = 7.84 + 92.16

|LA|^2 =100

|LA| = √100

|LA| = 10m

10bii)
in triangle LCA
sinθ = Opp/Hyp
sinθ = |LC|/|LA|
sinθ = 9.6/10
sinθ = 0.96
θ = sin^-1 (0.96)
θ = 73.74

===============================

13ai)
given
x(*)y=x+y/2
i)3(*)2/5=3+2/5/2
=(15+2/5)*1/2
=17/5*1/2
=17/10= 1,7/10

13aii)
8(*)y=8^1/4
=8+y/2 =33/4
32+4y=66
4y=66-32
4y=34
y=34/4
y=17/2
y=8^1/2

13b)
given DABC
AB=(^-4/6) and AC =(3/^-8)
so AP =1/2(^-4/6)
AP=(^-2/3)
hence
CP = CA + AP
CP= -(3/^8)+(^-2/3)
CP = (^-5/11)

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Expo: Financial Accounting (Essay & Objective) Waec 2017 Free Expo Answers See Here>>>


============================
Wednesday, 19th April, 2017

Financial Accounting 2 (Essay) 09.30am – 12.00pm
Financial Accounting 1 (Objective) 12.00pm – 1.00pm
============================

Account OBJ:
1-10: ABBCCBACCA
11-20 CCACCACCAB
21-30: CACBCCABBD
31-40: BCCDADDBBD
41-50: DBABAABBDC

1a)A source document is the original record containing the details to substantiate a transaction entered in an accounting system.
++++++++++++++++++++++
1b)
i) Invoice
ii) credit note
iii) debit note
iv) payment voucher
v) petty cash voucher
vi)bank statement
====================

(3ai)
Accumulated fund:This is the funds that correspond to the capital of the partnership or sole trader and it will be calculated using the statement of affairs

(3aii)
Subscription in arrears: This is the sum of money due for members but remained unpaid.It is treated as debtors in the balance sheet

(3aiii)
Reciepts and payments: This is the accounts that shows the summary of a cash book over a particular period of time

(3aiv)
Income and expenditure account: This is type of account being prepared based on the same principle as the profit and loss accounts.It is described as the equivalent of profit and loss account

(3av)
Entrance fees: This is the money paid on application for membership of an association or club.It is normally treated as income in income and expenditure account

(3b)
A share is defined as that portion of the joint stock companies capital owned by a share holder while debentures are documents in form of borrowing (eg bond issued under the seal of company in respect of money lent to it) on which the company agree to pay a certain fixed rate of interest
===============

4a list the four main groups of accounting ratio?
Ansa:

i) Liquidity
ii) Solvency
iii) Solvency
iv) Profitability
===============

(6)
MANUFACTURING TRADING PROFIT AND LOSS A/C FOR THE YEAR END 31/12/2014
DEBIT SIDE:(Le)
Stock:56000
Purchases:150000
=206000
Add carriage inwards:7500
=213500
Add direct expenses:11400
=224900
Less closing stock:40000
=184900
Wages(16500)
Add acrrued(4000)
=20500
Prime cost:205400
Overheads Exp:
fuel:15000
Dept. Equip:12000
=27000
Add WIP @start:60000
=87000
Less WIP @ end:64000
=23000
less Gross profit on manufactured goods:22840
Market value=251240
Stock F.G:80000
Add Market value:251240
=331240
Less stock F.G:72000
=259240
240760
=500000
Carriage out:7600
Office expenses:3800
Salaries:19200
Net profit:233000
=263600
CREDIT SIDE:(Le)
Market value:21240
=251240
Sales:500000
=500000
G.p b/d:240760
G.P on manufactured:22840
=263600

Account OBJ:
1-10: ABBCCBACCA
11-20 CCACCACCAB
21-30: CACBCCABBD
31-40: BCCDADDBBD
41-50: DBABAABBDC


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Expo: Chemistry (Essay & Objective) Waec 2017 Free Expo Answers See Here>>>>


 

============================
Tuesday, 18th April, 2017

Chemistry 2 (Essay) 2.00pm – 4.00pm
Chemistry 1 (Objective) 4.00pm – 5.00pm
============================

Chem

1ACDBCBDBCA

11DBAADCDBCB

21DBCBCCDBAD

31BACBACBCCD

41BDACABDABD

THEORY
1ai)
an acid base indicator is a weak acid or weak base that exhibits a colour change as the concentration of hydrogen (H^+) or hydroxide (H^-) ions changes in an aqueous solution
1aii)
methyl-orange
1b)
i)oxidizing agent
ii)mixed anhydride
1c)
enthalpy of combustion is the heat evolved when one mole of a substance is completely burns in oxygen gas under standard conditions
1cii)
enthapy of combustion is always negetive since it involvs a rise in temperature and heat of reactants is greater than the heat of products
1d)
primary cell is a cell that cannot be re charged while secondary cell is a cell that can be recharged

1dii)
primary cell — daniell cell
secondary cell — lead accumulator

1e)
mole is the unit of measurement in the International System of Units (SI) for amount of substance. The unit is defined as the amount of a chemical substance which contains as many representative particles, e.g., atoms, molecules, ions, electrons, or photons, as there are atoms in 12 grams of carbon-12 (12C), the isotope of carbon with relative atomic mass

1f)
n= V=40cm^3
c= 0.40moldm^3
n=cv/1000
0.40*40/1000 = 0.016mol

1g)
i) Platinum
ii) Carbon

1h)
i) Hydrogen bonds
ii) Vander waals forces

1i) Water(H2O) and Carbonmonoxide (Co)

1j) 1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^6 3d^3 4s^2

==================

3)
3b)
in other words the oil is stained red. This is a aspecifit test for fats
if suden (iii) is added to fats a distinct red colouration is observed
3c)
Given 2502+02+2H20—>2H2SO4
1mole produce 2mole
1.3mole produce 3mole
moles of H2SO4=3mole
molar mass of H2SO4=(1+2)+32+(4*16)
=2+32+64
=98gmol-^1
mole=mass/molar mass
mass and H2SO4=Mole*molar mass
=3*98
=294g
3di)
DH2<dh3<dh1

==================

4)

3ai)
Thermal cracking
3aii)
C4H8
3aiii)
(I) H H. H
| | |
H-C-C-C=C
| | | |
H H H H
and
(II) H H
| |
H-C-C=C-C-H
| | | |
H H H H
3aiv)
I-normal butene
II -But-2-ene
Ni
3av)
C4H8 +H2 ——-> C4H10
250c
3b)
method
– rub the fat on a blank white paper
– pour Sudan (III) dye over the paper
-wash the paper under tap
Observation
– rubbing the fat on the paper produces a translucent color
-pouring sudan (III) will stain the blot red
Conclusion
– fat is present because sudan (III) can stain fat red


================================

5bi)
C(s) + O2(g) =====> Co2(g)
Co2(g) + C(s) =====> 2Co(g)
Fe2O3(s) + 3Co(g) =====> 2Fe(l) + 3Co2(g)
The limestone present decomposes as follows:
CaCo3(s) =====> CaO(s) + Co2(g)
Which is available to remove silicon(iv) oxide impurity
SiO2(s) + CaO(s) =====> CaSiO3(s)
5bii)
Faraday’s first law of electrolysis states that, the mass (m) of an element discharged during an electrolysis is directly proportional to the quantity of electricity (Q) passing through it.

Chem

1ACDBCBDBCA

11DBAADCDBCB

21DBCBCCDBAD

31BACBACBCCD

41BDACABDABD

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Expo: CRS x IRS (Essay & Objective) Waec 2017 Free Expo Answers See Here>>>


============================
Tuesday, 18th April, 2017
Christian Religious Studies 2 (Essay) 09.30am – 11.30am
Christian Religious Studies 1 (Objective) 11.30am – 12.30pm

Islamic Studies 2 (Essay) 09.30am – 11.30am
Islamic Studies 1 (Objective) 11.30am – 12.30pm
============================

====CRS ANSWERS===
===================
CRK OBJ:
1-10: BDDCAACABA
11-20: BCCABDDCBC
21-30: CCDBABCABB
31-40: DBCADBDBAC
41-50: BBBCACBBCC

1a)
Pharaoh had a dream: He was standing by the Nile, when out of the river there came up seven cows, sleek and fat, and they grazed among the reeds. After them, seven other cows, ugly and gaunt, came up out of the Nile and stood beside those on the riverbank. And the cows that were ugly and gaunt ate up the seven sleek, fat cows. Then Pharaoh woke up. He fell asleep again and had a second dream: Seven heads of grain, healthy and good, were growing on a single stalk. After them, seven other heads of grain sprouted thin and scorched by the east wind. The thin heads of grain swallowed up the seven healthy, full heads. Then Pharaoh woke up; it had been a dream.

1b)
-It reveal various aspects of the nature of god
-He is God of order.his creation is orderly
-God whose word is powerful and creative
-God who is omnipotent,ominiscient and ominiprensent
-God is alpha and omega
-God whose creation is perfect and good

(2a)

now in the Promised Land after the military
conquests of Joshua, went through a constant cycle
of falling into sin, being punished by God via an attack
by enemy invaders, crying out to the Lord in
repentance and a Judge being raised up to lead the
nation back towards God and deliver them from their
troubles. Deborah was one of the 12 judges and in her
account in Joshua Chapters 4 and 5 we see the faith,
strength and leadership of a faithful woman of God.
=============

(6a)
(I)the two robbers-they were crucified along side Jesus Christ,one on his right hand and the other on the left…
ii)Joseph Arimathea-he was a disciple of Jesus Christ,he went to Pilate and asked for the body of Jesus. Pilate ordered it to be given to him.Joseph took the body and wrapped it in a clean linen and laid it in his own new tomb. He rolled a great stone at the entrance of the tomb and departed .
(6b)
(I)it tells us as Christians should b humble and respectful
(ii)it also teaches us that Jesus has Power to save a sinner
============

Crs 7a First, they devoted themselves to the teaching of the apostles (διδαχή). This instruction is for new converts who may not have heard Jesus teach. The apostles are witnesses passing along the things which they have seen and heard. It is entirely possible that the apostles had common set of instruction which they regularly passed along to new converts. If this is the case, then there was a basic body of tradition within months of the death of Jesus which could be called the “teaching of the apostles.”

Second, they devoted themselves to fellowship (κοινωνία). Since this word has the connotation of sharing common, this is likely an allusion to the communal life described in the next verses (Fitzmyer, Acts, 269). At the very least this includes alms and care for the poor. I would suggest that many of those who needed assistance were Diaspora pilgrims who accepted the message of Jesus and remained in Jerusalem rather than to return home after Pentecost.

Third, they devoted themselves to “breaking of bread.” While this phrase can be used of sharing a meal together, it is likely that Luke is describing the community as celebrating some form of communion. In Luke 21:19 the same words are used as Jesus takes bread and breaks it. In Luke 24:35 it is used for the resurrected Jesus breaking bread as two disciples realized who he was. I think that Jesus’ practice of common meals was the foundation for this practice — they all ate and drank together as one group.

Fourth, they devoted themselves to prayers. Since the Greek is plural this is plausibly a reference to daily prayers in the Temple. It would not be unusual for Jewish men to go to the Temple several times a day to pray, so the community continues to worship at the Temple regularly. In fact, Acts 2:46 indicates that the disciples met in both private homes and in the Temple. This likely put them into contact with other observant Jews who would then be introduced to Jesus as Messiah.

7b choose 3
1. Christians Were Bound and United By A Common Truth
2. Christians Were Characterized by Uncommon Joy
3. Christians Were a Fearless and Animated People, Not a Passive Church
4. Christians Were Known By Their Love
5. Christians Gave Sacrificially to the Needy

9A)
According to James all Christian must avoid
partiality. He admonished them saying ” For if
a man with gold rings and in fine clothing
comes into ur assembly and a poor man in
shabby clothing also comes in and you pay
attention to the rich and say “have a seat here
please” whiles you say to the poor man “stand
there” or “sit at my feet”. James advised that
when this happens, the members have
discriminated against the poor man and
honoured the rich. He advised them saying ”
God has chosen the poor to be rich in faith and
heirs of the kingdom which he has promised.
He further wrote that, they would b fulfilling
the royal law which says “love your neighbour
as yourself” if they avoid partiality and
favoritism.
B)
1. discrimination create division in the church
2. It retards spiritual and numerical growth of
the church
3. It leads to lack of commitment
4. It discourages people from accepting the
gospel
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====IRS ANSWERS===
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Irs

1)
During the Call of the Prophet Muhammad sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, many Muslims were diligent in memorizing the
(hadith) sayings of the Prophet peace be upon him.
As Islam spread through many countries, battles increased killing many memorizers of hadith. The remaining memorizers were
dispersed throughout the countries. Growing concern arose that some of memorizers might keep the hadith to themselves; verification of hadith became little and falsehood and
fabrication was being mistaken for the genuine truth. The need to write down and document the hadith became very apparent. The first person who ordered written documentation of
hadith was ‘Umar Ibn ‘Abdul-‘Aziz; who did so after he was appointed to the office of Caliphate. He viewed written documentation as the best means of preserving genuine hadith of the Prophet Peace be upon him. In “Fathul-Bari” for Ibn Hajar it was mentioned that: “The first one to write down the hadith was Ibn Shihab Az-Zuhri at the turn of the first century by the order of ‘Umar Ibn ‘Abdul ‘Aziz.”
Al-Bukhari also mentioned in “al-Fath”: ‘Umar Ibn ‘Abdul ‘Aziz wrote to all the countries.
===============================
3)
i)Continuity of the chain (i.e. each narrator mustactually have had contact with the narrator ‘above’ him, from whom he is claiming to narrate).
ii)Moral uprightness of each narrator (an
inobservant or sinful Muslim, who is evidently careless even about his religious practice, cannot be expected to be careful enough to reliably transmit hadith).
iii)Retention of each narrator (someone with a poor memory cannot be relied upon to transmit hadith accurately, unless he writes down hadith upon hearing them and narrates only from his manuscript).
iv)Freedom from irregularities (if A, B, C, D, E and F all heard a hadith from X, but F narrates it differently than A, B, C, D and E, then even if F is upright and generally reliable, this particular narration of his will be considered irregular.)
v)Freedom from flaws (there are other, more subtle flaws in the isnad, which can be detected by experts in hadith science, who have familiarity with information about the narrators, and with a large corpus of narrations and the correlations and divergences between them.)
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2a)
Tafsir of Quran means the
explanation or interpretations of the verses of Quran.
2b)
i)Tafsir bil Riwaya
ii)Tafsir bil Ray
2c)
i)Firstly, it tries to explain Quran so that
the understanding of the reader about
Quran and its message increases.
Reading only the translation can give the
literal meanings of the words of Quran,
however, Tafsir comes with context in
which a particular Ayah was revealed,
hence giving a context to each and every
word, which consequently means a better
understanding of Quran and its verses.
ii)Secondly , Tafsir is also important when
it comes to driving out the laws of Islam
from Quran. Verses of Quran come with
instructions, and then there are the
hadiths of Prophet (PBUH) that also
gives instructions. Thus, Tafsir combines
both and gives a complete and
comprehendible set of instructions to the
reader.
iii)Thirdly, when there is no science
involved in the interpretation of Quran,
then ambiguity and contradiction is
surely to rise.
================================
4a)
Fasting teaches man the principle of sincere love; because when he observes the fasting he doses it out of deep love for Allah. And the man who loves Allah truly is a man who really knows what love is.
4b)
It equips man with a creative sense of hope and an optimistic outlook on life; because when he fast he is hoping to please Allah and is seeking His Grace.
4c)
It imbues man with a genuine virtue of
effective Devotion, honest and Dedication and closeness to Allah because when he fast he does so for Allah alone
4d)
It cultivates in man a vigilant and sound
conscience; because the fasting person keeps his fast in secret as well as in public.
4e)
It shows man a new way of wise savings
and sound Budgeting; because normally when he eats less quantities or less meals he spends less money and effort. And this is a spiritual semester of home economics and budgeting.
4f)
It enables man to master the art of mature
G. Adaptability. We can easily understand the point once we realize that fasting makes man change the entire course of his daily life.
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IRS Q5
Essentials of Valid Muslim Marriage
For a valid Islamic marriage, the following conditions must be satisfied:
1. The parties must have the capacity to marry
2. There must be a clear proposal and acceptance.
3. Free consent
4. No Legal disability
1. Capacity to marry
Every Muslim of sound mind who has attained puberty, may enter into a contract of marriage. Puberty means the age at which a person becomes adult (capable of performing sexual intercourse and procreation of children). A person is presumed to have attained the age of puberty on the completion of 15 years. So the boy and girl who has attained puberty can validly contract a marriage .
2. Proposal and Acceptance

Under the Muslim law for the validity of a marriage there must be a proposal and acceptance at the same meeting. The proposal and acceptance must both be expressed at one meeting; a proposal made at one meeting and acceptance made at another meeting does not make a valid Muslim marriage. Neither writing nor any religious ceremony is essential.
3. Free consent

Free consent of the parties is absolutely necessary for a valid marriage .If there is no free consent a Muslim marriage is void. Under the Muslim Law, a marriage of a Mohammedan who is of sound mind and has attained puberty is void; if it is brought about without his consent The marriage of a girl who has attained puberty and is of sound mind would be void if her consent is not obtained.
4. No Legal disability

Under Muslim Law, marriage under certain circumstances is prohibited or not permitted. The prohibitions can be classified into two classes:

Absolute Prohibition

Relative prohibition


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